DIPLOMA IN ENVIRONMENTAL  TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Objective

To produce graduates, who will be able to operate production process, perform laboratory work, solve related problems and also deal with environmental issues.

Mode of Teaching

Environmental Technology is by coursework, examination and one major final project. The major final project maybe completed in the university laboratories or in collaboration with industry or other institutions. The duration of this programme is three years.

Examination

The final written examinations constitute 50of the total mark while the continuous assessment and assignments constitute 50. The pass mark of each course is 50.

The first year courses are the same as other diploma programmes in the School of Mines and Mineral Sciences (SMMS).

Programme Details

YEAR ONE

Indices Matrices Graph, Logarithms, Series, Trigonometry, Vectors, Areas and volumes, Statistics.
Units & Dimensions, Vectors, Motion, Friction, Equilibrium, Heat, Work, Power, Machines, Thermal expansion, Hygrometry, Electricity, Elastic properties, Fluids, Waves, Sound.
Introduction, Atomic theory and structure, Periodic table, bonding, formulae, Kinetic theory of gases, Gas laws, Electrolytes and solutions. Introduction, laws of thermodynamics, thermochemistry, free energy and equilibrium, the liquid state
Management, Organization, Personnel, Financial Control, Marketing, Work Study, Industrial Relations.
Introduction, Library Skills, Note making and taking , Reading skills, Writing Skills, Summary, Definition, Description, Information Sources, Technical Correspondence, Speaking Skills, Interview Techniques.
Introduction to computer hardware, Use of equipment, Operating system, Introduction to basic, problem analysis, Word processing, Spreadsheets.
Use and importance of the subject, letter practice, geometrical constructions, isometric and pictorial view, drawing conventions for electrical products and hydraulic system. .

YEAR TWO

The living cell, the diversity of organisms, life systems: form and function, genetics, population genetics and evolution, applied microbiology.
Matrices and determinants, Review of A.P. and A.G. Infinite series, limiting values, convergent and divergent series; Test for convergency, further differentiation, further applications of differentiation, partial differentiation, total differentiation, rate of change of small changes, integration.
Basic definitions, Laws of Thermodynamics and Applications, Properties of Liquids and Vapors, Properties of steam, Use of steam Tables, Fuels and Combustion, Boilers, Steam Engine, Internal Combustion Engine, Compressors, Air Conditioning, Refrigeration. Fluids, Important concepts, Bernouli’s Equation, Losses of Head, Measurement of Flow Rate, Valves, Pumps.
Thermodynamics, Electrolytes, Electrochemistry, Colligative properties, Colloids, Diffusion, Chromatography, Chemical spectroscopy. Titration, Electrode deposition, Polarography. The chemistry of: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, derivatives of carboxylic acids, amines, phenols, carbanion chemistry, aromatic substitution and heterocyclic, synthetic methods, Mechanisms of reactions and structure determination.
Air pollution management of stationary and mobile sources, Soil pollution management, Groundwater pollution, Subsidence, Noise pollution and control, Energy and the environment, environmental impacts of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and climate change, acid deposition; renewable energy. Solid waste and hazardous waste management; Mining and the environment; Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental legislation and management in Zambia. International Environmental Law and MEAs.
Water Quality Monitoring – chemical water quality monitoring, Microbiological water quality monitoring – indicator organisms (total coliforms, feacal coliforms), nutrients and eutrophication, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); Water supply surveillance; Groundwater pollution and monitoring, groundwater contaminants, groundwater sampling, monitoring wells; Air pollution monitoring particulate monitoring: passive and active samplers, high volume samplers, cyclone elutriator, cascade impactors, stack sampling, isokinetic sampling. Monitoring of gaseous pollutants: absorption trains, TWA average concentrations, instantaneous concentrations, chemiluminiscent NOX analyzer, NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer, the West and Gaeke method for SO2, Gas chromatography flame ionization detector; Soil pollution monitoring.
Land Ecology – structure of ecosystems, abiotic & biotic factors, producers, consumers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, decomposers, trophic levels, food chains, food webs, Biomagnification and bioconcentration of pollutants e.g. Mercury, Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Sulphur cycle, Population ecology – Symbiosis, Parasitism, Mutualism, Commensalism, Predation

YEAR THREE

Sources of drinking water the hydrological cycle, groundwater, wells and boreholes, groundwater quality, surface water quality, dissolved oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, microbiological water quality analysis, chemical water quality; drinking water treatment, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection; Other treatment methods including reverse osmosis, UV treatment, silver ions treatment, boiling etc., Water distribution, water quality surveillance, wastewater collection and treatment, preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, advanced treatment, sludge treatment; stormwater management, Natural and constructed wetlands; Low-cost sanitation – onsite treatment of sewage, septic tanks and soakaways, ecosan, VIP toilets.
Pipe flow, energy losses and pipe system design; open channel flow, uniform and non-uniform flow, energy equation for open channels, sub-critical and supercritical flow, Froude number, specific energy, flow transitions, hydraulic jump; hydraulic structures; pumps – positive displacement pumps, rotodynamic pumps, suction lift, cavitation, energy and power requirements, efficiency, pump performance, pump selection, pump installation, water hammer and surge control.
Groundwater occurrence, the unsaturated zone, the saturated zone, aquifers, types of aquifers: confined aquifers, unconfined aquifers, porosity. Groundwater flow the hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, Darcy’s Law, Darcy velocity, average linear velocity, cone of depression, capture zone; Groundwater development, groundwater geophysical exploration, drilling methods and equipment, wells and boreholes, pumps and pump installation; Groundwater contamination and remediation, sources and types of groundwater contaminants, contaminant transport, Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs), Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs); conventional pump and treat, in situ bioremediation, soil vapour extraction, air sparging, groundwater treatment, etc
Introduction to air pollution problems, nature and sources of air pollutants, temperature inversions and air pollution episodes, coal combustion and industrial smog, photochemical smog, acid deposition, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming; Meteorology and dispersion of air pollutants; Air pollution control technology: Particulate control settling chambers, centrifugal (cyclone) collectors, electrostatic precipitators (ESP), fabric filtration, particulate wet scrubbers: Control of gaseous emissions, absorption, adsorption, condensation, incineration, control of combustion emissions, coal washing, fluidized bed combustion, limestone injection multistage burner, wet scrubbers; air pollution control of mobile sources, catalytic converters, reformulated fuels, etc.

Environmental Management: Introduction to environmental pollution control, Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution; Environmental Management Systems, Introduction to ISO14000, ISO14001 & ISO9001 standards; Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Impact Assessment.

Occupational Health and Safety: Hazardous chemicals handling, Handling, transport and storage of hazardous chemicals; handling of chemical spillages, the use of signs in the work place to signal hazardous chemicals e.g. Explosive chemicals, toxic chemicals, flammable, corrosive, irritants, etc. Radiation hazards, Types of radiations, industrial applications of radiations, effects of radiations, ionizing radiations, non-ionizing radiations, radioactive waste disposal, and use of signs in the work place to indicate radiation hazards; Accidents and incidents, Accident and incident investigation and reporting.

 Fire hazards, Causes of fire accidents, the fire triangle, classes of fire, introduction to fire fighting equipment. Housekeeping; Safety and health aspects of chemical laboratories; Indoor air quality, Radon gas, Carbon monoxide

Safety and Environmental Regulations in Zambia: Environmental Management Act 2011, and the Regulations as amended; Mines and Minerals Act etc.

Concentrations of solutions and particles, particle characterization, Buffering capacity of water, Acidity, Alkalinity, Hardness, Dissolved oxygen, Biochemical oxygen demand, Water quality, chemistry of iron and manganese, Treatment by chemical means, Sampling and analysis of water samples, Atmospheric chemistry.
Each student is required to carry out a research project on a relevant environmental topic, submit a report for assessment, and defend during a VIVA. Guidance on the project and report writing will be provided by individual lecturers (supervisors) with competencies in the specific research topics/field.