BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Introduction

Objective

To develop manpower that will be able to design, operate and maintain technologies and develop policies thereby promote environmental protection and safeguard human health.

Mode of Teaching

Environmental Engineering is by coursework, examination and one major final project. The major final project maybe completed in the university laboratories or in collaboration with industry or other institutions. The duration of this programme is five years.

Examination

The final written examinations constitute 60 of the total mark while the continuous assessment and assignments constitute 40. The pass mark of each course is 50.

Programme Details

FIRST YEAR COURSES

GENETICS:

PLANT BIOLOGY:

ANIMAL BIOLOGY:

 

Algebra:

Trigonometry:

Analytical Geometry:

The semi log and log graphs along with laws of determination.

Hyperbolic and circular functions.

Vector Scalars and Vectors:

Matrices and Determinants:

Calculus:

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY I

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I

Units and Dimension:

Linear Motion:

Newton’s laws of motion:

Turning forces

Vectors:

Friction:

Methods of reducing friction

Surface tension:

Computer hardware:

Computer Software:

Applications Software:

Introduction to programming language:

The Program Development Process:

Features of High-Level Language:

Program Structure:

Introduction to subject

Note making and note taking

Definition

Description

Information from visual sources

Technical correspondence

SECOND YEAR COURSES

Calculus II differentiation of transcendental functions

Ordinary differential equations

Series

Radius of convergence.

Eigen values and Eigen vectors

Laplace transforms

Probability and statistics

Meaning of population need of sample and sampling procedures, including probability sampling and purpose sampling. Correlation two variables only probability set theory. frequency concept of probability. probability distribution. axions or probability. bay’s theorem random variable. special distributions. moments and moment venerating functions

Structure and function of living organisms, the cell, plant and animal structure and functions, Morphology and functional anatomy of major groups of animals, morphology and functional of anatomy of flowering plants, intro to ecology, plant and animal communities.

Ultrastructure and function of organelles, Chemical constitution of the cell, DNA, Translation, RNA transcription, cell division, physiology of integrated systems of plants and animals, Mendelian Genetics, principle of segregation and gene action. Growth and development in plants and animals.

Chemical Kinetics

Adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis

Electrochemistry:

ANALYTICAL CHEMESTRY 

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II

 

Waves

Sound levels

Ultrasonics

Recording and reproduction of sound

Physical optics

Diffraction of light

Polarisation of light

Electrostatics

Capacitance

Current electricity

Magnetic effect of current

Electromagnetic induction

Diode Cathode rays

Quantum phenomenon

Nuclear atom

Radioactivity

Aspects of the Environment

Key Resource Bases

Pollution

Basic Principles in Pollution monitoring & control

Basic Environmental process calculations

Principles of Eco-Engineering

Humanity and the environment, the tragedy of the Commons,

Status of Resources

Materials

Language of engineers, system of drawing; Drawing sheets, Drawing instruments; Margin line; Name plate; Letter practice; working line, scales, dimension on drawings, engineering drawings; Layout of drawings; Geometrical constructions; Drawing threads and isometric projection; object plan and elevations. Orthographic projection, scale drawing; Drawing hex anal head, bolts, nuts external thread, internal thread, Lock nuts rolled steel sections, angles tee section, channel, square round hexagonal bars, welding joints in drawing convention. Drawing convention in chemical engineering.

THIRD YEAR COURSES

Properties of gases, Heat; Work; Internal energy;

The first law of Thermodynamics applied to a flow process, The second law of thermodynamics and entropy physical equilibrium; Reaction equilibrium in simple systems, Thermodynamics equations for equilibrium partial molar properties; chemical potential; fugacity; ideal and non-ideal systems, Activity coefficients, vapour liquid equilibria; solid liquid equilibria, Chemical equilibrium and free energy; Calculation of standard free energies, Gas phase equilibria: Complex reaction equilibria. Thermodynamics of electrochemical cells.

FLUID MECHANICS

Dissolved elements in water

Chemical equilibrium in natural waters

Soil organic matter

Soil mineralogy

Adsorption

Redox processes

Environmental organic chemistry

Hydrospheric Chemistry

Chemical composition of water, Acid

Contaminated Land Remediation

Characteristics and sources of contaminated land, development of pollution plumes. Basic concepts and mechanisms including porous media transport, diffusion, dispersion and reactions.

Governing equations including sources and sinks, adsorption and desorption, colloidal- facilitated transport.

Risk assessment for contaminated land

Site investigation and sampling/analysis

Contaminated land remediation methods

Introduction

Application of Biotechnology, Dairy Products, Butter, Cheese, Amino acids, Proteins, Vitamins, Antibiotics, Vaccines, Monoclonal antibodies, Hormone Production, downstream processing, Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology), Plant Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology, Social aspects of biotechnology.

Environmental Biotechnology

Bioenergy production

Applications of genetic engineering in Environmental Engineering

Bioremediation of soi

Biotechnology in wastewater treatment and sludge treatment

Characterization of solid waste and arisings: types of solid waste, waste handling, waste treatment and disposal (waste hierarchy: waste minimization, reduction, recycling, re-use, composting, thermal waste treatment: Energy form Waste (EfW) -incineration, gasification and pyrolysis, and landfilling) special feature: e-waste in Zambia.

Types of data and Measurements, statistical associations in environmental data, meaning of population, need of sample and sampling procedures, probability sampling and purposive sampling, frequency concept of probability, probability distribution, axions or probability, Baye’s theorem, random variables, special distribution, moments and moment venerating functions, application of statistical analysis in experimental vs. correlation research, factorial designs.

Statistical inferencing and predictions, regression, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, latent variables, exploratory factor analysis.

Testing for significance, relationship testing tools (parametric and non-parametric).

Water component

Wastewater component:

FOURTH YEAR COURSES

Introduction to Terrestrial Ecology

Producers

Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Bio-geo-chemical Cycles

Population Dynamics

Introduction to Limnology

Biological Interactions within the aquatic environment

Chemical & Physical analyses of Fresh water

Approaches to Research

Planning the project

Ethics and Integrity

Literature Searching

Data Collection & Analysis

Basic concepts of remote sensing; Airborne and space borne sensors; Introduction to Microwave remote sensing; Data acquisition; Digital image Processing; Image Restoration and Enhancement; Segmentation feature extraction; Clustering, Edge detection.

Geographic Information System; Introduction to GIS, Geographical Information Components; Building and Maintaining a GIS; Global Positioning System, Spatial Analysis, DEM, Terrain Analysis, Information Extraction.

Applications to Water resources; Land use and erosion; Forestry; Environment and ecology.

Use of Computer Software.

Software: ArcGIS, ERDAS, SWAT

Introduction to Air Pollution

Air pollution Modelling

Air Quality Management

Air-Pollution

Hydrology

Hydrogeology

Hydraulics

River engineering

Mass Balance Analysis

Mass Transport and Transfer

Chemical Kinetics

Microbial Growth

Ideal Reactor Models

Non-ideal Reactor Models

Suspended Growth

Modelling the Activated Sludge Process

FIFTH YEAR COURSES

Introduction, what is ecotoxicology, Major classes of contaminants, Inorganic and Organic. General concepts of toxicology, Dose-response relationships of contaminants in living organisms, Absorption of contaminants in living organisms, distribution of contaminants in living organisms, Storage of contaminants in living organisms, Biotransformation of contaminants in living organisms, Excretion of contaminants from living organisms, Toxicity tests, Acute , Chronic, Early life stage tests, Whole life cycle tests, In vitro tests, Microcosms, Mesocosms, In situ bioassays, Toxic kinetics, Bioaccumulation, Bio magnification, Diffusion, Compartment models, Single compartment model, Two compartment model, Volume of distribution, Transporter mediated transport, Lethal body burden (critical body residue). Effects of contaminants, level of biological response and biomarkers of exposure and effects. Cellular, Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Teratogenesis. Target organs, The respiratory system, The liver, The kidney, The skin, The eye, The nervous system, The reproductive cardiac, The immune system, on individuals and stress responses, Physiological responses, Biochemical responses, On populations, On communities and ecosystems. Factors affecting Toxicity, Biotic factors, Taxonomic group, Age/body size, Abiotic factors, Temperature, pH and alkalinity, Salinity, Hardness, Chemical mixtures, Dissolved organic carbon, Role of particulates Experimental design and procedures Statistical analysis of eco-toxicological data.

Industrial use of natural resources; industrial impacts on the environment (air, land & water) development of pollution abatement methods (searching for solutions to the pollution problem, avoiding the problem, end-of-pipe approach, process integrated solutions, recycling, long term solutions).

Cleaner production assessment (cleaner production assessment methodologies, planning & organizing cleaner production, pre-assessment, assessment, evaluation & feasibility study, implementation & continuation, supporting cleaner production, promotion of cleaner production, policy instruments to promote cleaner production, barriers to CP implementation).

Environmental performance (environmental performance evaluation, environmental performance indicators, types of environmental indicators, establishing environmental performance indicators).

Energy conservation, water conservation, air pollution reduction, green engineering & green chemistry.

Introduction: environmental classification, environmental management: the rationale for management. Environmental management practice: current thought in environmental management best practice (ecological and lifecycle approach), environmental assessment practice (tools for management) EIAS, EMPS. SEAS, risk (hazards and disasters) in environmental management. Environmental law, policy and governance (special ref, international conventions; and in Zambian context, cap 204, with its subsequent legal frameworks in environmental management and protection, as was, and as amended as environmental management act 2011. Environmental management systems-ISOS: ISO 14000 series, other ISO, 9000, ISO 26000, ISO 50001 etc, environmental performance tracking and, environmental auditing.

Climate Based Hazards and Disasters: Natural Hazards and disasters, anthropogenic induced hazards and disasters. Adaptation

The broad approaches of climate change abatement with respect to the maturity of the science: Geo-engineering the climate, Carbon Capture and Sequestration.

Technology innovation & implementing alternative energy

Carbon-cap & trade, carbon tax

Components of GIS (Computer Hardware and Software Spatial Data from the "Real World" Trained Personnel, GIS project management – assessment of needs, organizational system, methodology or model, data needs and data collection, GIS project proposal – generation of topic, formulation of question, development of methodology, data acquisition. Remote Sensing- Visual Image Interpretation-Digital Image classification, Image Enhancement Geo-databases - Features of spatial databases, Spatial index, Spatial database systems, vector data, attribute data, digitizing vector data, editing techniques, raster data, and topology, highbred data. Coordinate reference systems - Common projected coordinate systems Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), Lambert Conformal Conic, Albers Equal Area, map projections. Spheroids and spheres, Datums, Projected coordinate systems, projection maps, Projection types, Other projections, Projection parameters. Geographic transformation methods, Equation-based methods, Grid-based methods. Map production - Map production means arranging map elements on a sheet of paper, Map elements - title, map body, map border, legend, scale, orientation, arrow and the acknowledgement. Spatial data, spatial data analysis, – raster data, raster data analysis, interpolation. Modelling Geographic Information, Application of GIS in Environmental and Nature Management Water Resources - Watershed Management, Flood Management, Groundwater, Water Quality. Land Use-Land use planning, Land use suitability and land use cover change Erosion - Watershed definition and delineation, Contributing area and flow accumulation modeling, Basin morphometry, Watershed hydrology, Erosion modeling, Land use planning Forestry - Land and Timber, Forestry Consulting, Urban Forestry, Public Agencies, Forests, Wildfires, Ecology and habitats, Access to public lands. EIA – Identification of primary and spatial impacts, land use trends, and future scenarios, secondary or collateral impacts

Assessment: Written examination (60{d109a564b5af1069e15ea8bc524cfa1dbeb8a016430020a6fc53ea8abd8ad77b}); Continuous Assessment (40{d109a564b5af1069e15ea8bc524cfa1dbeb8a016430020a6fc53ea8abd8ad77b}). History of Mining in Zambia, Main Mining Methods in Zambia, Key processes in Mining, Technological processes in Mining, Energy demands from mining, Air emissions from mining, Water effluents from mining, Solid wastes from Mining, Impacts from mining (Social, Environmental & Economic), Zambia’s mining potential versus environmental concerns.
Definition of energy; Energy sources, Non-renewable Energy sources, History of Non-renewable Energy sources, World-wide use of Non-renewable energy, Impacts of Non-renewable energies (Social, Environmental & Economic); Renewable Energy sources, History of Renewable Energy sources, World-wide use of Renewable Energy, Impacts of Renewable energies (Social, Environmental & Economic), Zambia’s energy potential, generation & use.

Defining Business and Finance, Capital and investment strategy, types of investments, opportunities identification, defining ideas, translating and hatching ideas into business plans and proposals

Mastering Financial Management: Sources of capital, types of assets, assets vs. liabilities, overheads vs. working capital, profit margins, break-even points, net present value.

Expanding Investments, ploughing back profits, loan injections, partnerships that work

Business Ethics: Legal matters and contracts