BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING:  MINERALS ENGINEERING/METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING

The department continues to offer diploma training in metallurgy in addition to the degree program in metallurgical engineering. Metallurgical Engineering was the first metallurgy degree programme to be introduced in the then School of Technology after approval by senate in 1995. The programme has a strong bias towards training students in metal processing technologies and adaption of metals for various engineering applications. Metallurgical Engineering degree programme was introduced along the already existing diploma programmes which were made up courses related to mineral processing and chemical metallurgy. This was necessitated as part of the department’s obligation to satisfy manpower needs of the mining and allied industry at the time.

Programme Objective

The degree is a 5yr training programme. In the first three years of training, from first year to third year, the inter-disciplinary degree programme aims to provide students with a broad foundation in both Physical Metallurgy (here referred to as Metallurgical Engineering) and Minerals Engineering fields in order to position students to specialise in either Metallurgical Engineering or Minerals Engineering in the last two years of the training programme. Student will graduate with either a Bachelor of Engineering- Minerals Engineering or Bachelor of Engineering- Metallurgical Engineering depending on the area of specialisation during the last two years of the training programme. This arrangement orients the undergraduate training programme to meet the needs of the process and mining industry by producing a graduate that adapt easily to changing paradigms in the mining industry.

 

Introduction

FIRST YEAR COURSE CONTENT

First year course content (See year 1 courses for Chemical Engineering)

SECOND YEAR COURSE CONTENT

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Treatment of water supplies and effluents
  • Surface Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

  • Electrostatics
  • Magnetism
  • Circuit Theory
  • Electronics Instrumentation
  • Power Utilisation
  • Electrical Machines
  • Statics
  • Dynamics
  • Strength of materials
  • Co-ordinate Geometry
  • Review of Algebra, Analytical Geometry and Calculus
  •  Complex Numbers
  • Infinite series, Products and Integrals
  •  Vectors and Solid Geometry
  • Partial Differentiation
  • Integrals with Several Variables
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Ordinary Differential Equation of the First Order
  •  Ordinary Linear Differential Equations of Higher Orders
  •  Power Series Solutions of Differential Equations
  •  Laplace Transformations
Structure of Atoms and Molecules, Electron Theory of Metals, Structure of Solids, Solid Solution. Phase Diagrams, Iron Carbon System, Steel Heat Treatment Theory, Heat Treatment of Steel, Case Hardening and Surface Treatment, Heat Treatment Furnaces, Metallographic, Mechanical properties
  • Introduction to Geology
  • Introduction to Mining:
  • General Approach to Extractive Metallurgy
  • Introduction to Mineral Processing
  • Introduction to extractive Metallurgy

THIRD YEAR COURSE CONTENT

  • Fourier Series and Integrals
  • Partial Differential Equations
  •  Complex Analytical Functions
  • Expansion in Series
  • The Calculus of Residues
  • Conformal Transformation
  • Numerical Methods and Analysis
  • Numerical Methods in Linear Algebra
  • Numerical Methods for Differential Equations
  •  Statistics and Probability:Statistics
  • Probability
  • Properties of Engineering Materials
  • Types of Engineering Materials
  • Powder Metallurgy-Definition and concept
  • Testing of Materials
  • Effect of environment on materials
  • Diffusion in Solids
  • Solidification of Metals
  • Deformation of Metals
  • Failures of Metals:
  • Fracture
  • Fatigue
  • Creep
  • Residual stresses
  • Definition and properties of fluids, units and dimension
  • Conservation of mass
  • Specific applications
  • Heat Transfer by Conduction
  • Conduction in Steady-state one dimension
  • Conduction in conduction in Steady-state two dimension and three dimensions
  • Conduction in unsteady state (transient)
  • Heat Transfer by Convection
  • Introduction to hydrodynamics
  • Dimensional analysis
  • Forced Convection
  • Free Convection
  • Boiling and Condensation
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Heat Transfer by Radiation
  • Basic relations on thermal radiation
  • Radiation Exchange between Surfaces
  • Mass transfer
  • Introduction
  • Momentum Transfer
  • Heat transfer
  • Mass Transfer

FOURTH YEAR- (Only Metallurgical Engineering Stream running)

  • Mechanisms of metal working
  • Metal working processes
  • Extrusion
  • Forging
  • Drawing
  • Residual stresses in drawing
  • Sheet metal working
  • Machining

Part 1 – Hydrometallurgy

  • Introduction to Hydrometallurgy
  • THERMODYNAMICS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
  • LEACHING
  • Leaching kinetics, Agitation Leaching, Pressure leaching
  • Copper
  • Nickel
  • Cobalt
  • Gold and silver
  • Processing of platinum group metals
  • Aluminium
  • Zincs.
  • Uranium
  • SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION
  • INDUSTRIAL FILTRATION
  • FLOCCULATION AND COAGULATION
  • PURIFICATION OF LEACH SOLUTIONS
  • Adsorption, Ionic precipitation, Precipitation by gases, Cementation
  • ELECTROMETALLURGY
  •  Electrorefining

Part 2 – Pyrometallurgy

  • FUELS
  • Coal
  • Pretreatment
  • MATTE SMELTING
  • Copper matte smelting
  • Matte smelting technologies
  • CONVERTING OF COPPER MATTES
  • COPPER FIRE REFINING
  • ROASTING
  • LEAD EXTRACTION
  • COBALT FROM SLAG
  • EXTRACTION OF Ag/Au FROM HIGH SILICA COPPER REFINING SLIMES
  • Method of evaluation

IRON MAKING

  • Sintering
  • Pelletizing
  • Briquetting
  • Fluxes used in the iron and steel industry
  • Fuels
  • Blast Furnace Process
  • Alternative Processes of Ironmaking

STEELMAKING

  • Secondary Steelmaking Processes
  • Stainless Steelmaking technology
  • Casting Pit Practice

  • Chemical Analysis
  • Applied Mineralogy in Mineral Processing
  • Introduction.
  • Applied mineralogy in circuits treating copper ores
  • Presentation of mineralogical data
  • Recent innovations in mineralogical analysis
  • Metallography
  • Metallographic Techniques
  • X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • Application Of X-Ray Diffraction
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Advanced Chemical And Thermal Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Patterns
  • Sands for molds and cores
  • Casting and mould design
  • Making cores
  • Gates, risers and chills
  • Cast metals
  • Description and operation of melting furnaces
  • Melting and casting finishing operations
  • Defects and continuous casting
  • Process control
  • Method of evaluation
  • Introduction
  • Corrosion failures and attack
  • Dry corrosion (oxidation)
  • Aqueous corrosion
  • Corrosion control methods
  • Assessment of corrosion (methods of testing)

FOURTH YEAR- (ONLY MINERAL ENGINEERING STREAM RUNNING)

  • Thermodynamics of roastng
  • Converting
  • Kinetics of metallurgical processes
  • Fuels
  • Pyrometallurgical direct reduction
  • Introduction
  • Hydrometallurgy Mineral Processing Interface
  • Leaching
  • Thermodynamics of aqueous solutions
  •  Leaching Processes
  • Solid/Liquid Separation Processes
  • Separation and Purification
  • Precipitation of Impurities
  • Solvent Extraction
  • Adsorption & Ion Exchange
  • Chemical Analysis:
  • Applied Mineralogy in Mineral Processing
  • Introduction
  • Applied mineralogy in circuits treating copper ores
  • Presentation of mineralogical data
  • Recent innovations in mineralogical analysis:    ,.

Movement of Solids in Fluids: Introduction and basic concepts. Factors affecting the settling of paticles. Laminar and turbulent flow. Fluid resistance and terminal velocity-settling of fine spheres under stokes law, settling of coarse particles under Newtonian resistance, settling of particles of intermediate range, factors affecting the theoretical treatment of falling particles, evaluation of the Reynold’s number for different flow conditions. Equal settling particles, free settling ratio, hindered settling.

Physical Processing

Gravity separation: Dense Media Separation –Introduction, Mechanism and working principle of dense media separation. Types of media employed in DMS. Cleaning and recirculation of media. Operations of dense media separation. Dense media separation processes. Washability characteristics of coals. Jigging-introduction, theory of jigging. Operation of jig. Factors affecting stratification in jigging. Jigging cycles. Stratification during jigging. Methods if jigging. Types of jigs. Advantages and disadvantages of Jigs. Operational control. Consideration in design of a Jig. Application of Jigs. Streaming currents-theory of flowing film concentration. Devices for flowing film concentration. Shaking tables. Dry tables or pneumatic tables. Treatment of slimes on tables. Applications of flowing film concentration. New development in flowing film concentration. Gravity separation circuits.

Magnetic separation: Introduction. Magnetism. Magnetic materials and their separation. Mechanism of magnetic separation. Minerals responding to magnetic separation. Factors affecting magnetic separation. Application of magnetic separation. Magnetic separators: Dry magnetic separators – Dry belt magnetic separators, dry drum separator, high intensity dry magnetic separator, magnetic precipitator; Wet magnetic separators- belt type wet magnetic separator, drum-type wet magnetic separator. Advances in magnetic separation: advances in permanent magnets, new circuits, high speed drums, high intensity wet magnetic separators, cryogenic magnetic separation, magneto-density apparatus, the continous flow magnetic separator, wet-dry magnetic separator, horizontal rotary wet magnetic separator. Demagnetisers.

 

Electrostatic separation: Introduction. Mechanism of electrical separation: charging of particles by conductance, charging of particles by ion bombardment, charging of particles by friction, charging of particles by thermal strains, charging of particles by light or radiation conductivity. Conductivity of minerals and factors affecting them: surface conditions of minerals, temperature, type of material, specific gravity, size and shape. Electrical separation processes: Industrial electrostatic separators- belt –type electrostatic separator, roll-type electrostatic separator. High tension separators. Dielectric separation system: operation of dielectric separation, dielectric constants of medium and minerals, applications of dielectric constant separation.

 

Flotation engineering

Introduction: Definition and basic concepts. Flotation history.

Theory of Flotation: Types of Flotation processes- Froth flotation, Film flotation, oil flotation, combined flotation-gravitational method, ion flotation.

Flotation Reagents: Mechanism of reagent’s function in Flotation-. Collectors: Ionising collectors, Non-Polar collectors. Mechanism of reaction of collector with minerals. Factors affecting the reaction of collectors with minerals and their water repellent effect. Frothers: mechanism of frothing action, factors affecting the action of frothers. Types of frothers. Application of frothers. Modifying agents and their action in Flotation: mechanism of action of modifying agents, types of modifying agents. Storage and handling of reagents. Factors affecting the addition of reagents.

 

Liberation and flotation process: mineralogical factors, mineral association, grain size, gangue minerals, particle sliming and soluble species. Relationship between liberation and size reduction, effects of physical and non-physical factors on flotation. Effect of particle size on flotation, particle composition

Flotation practice and Machines: Introduction. Flotation process: pulp preparation, conditioning, aeration to obtain the froth. Flotation machines: general arrangement of flotation cells, classification of flotation machines, selection of flotation, factors affecting the size of flotation machine, determination of size and number of cells, amount of pulp required and its density. Auxilliary Flotation equipments: reagent feeders, conditioning tanks or contact vats. Design evaluation. Design considerations for effective suspension and distribution of particles. Design aspects of larger cells. Flotation schemes: Flotation scheme based on number of stages, flotation schemes based on number of flotation, flotation schemes based on number of products.

 

Flotation Cells as Mixing Reactors: basic concepts of Power Number, Reynolds number, Froude Number, air flow number, weber number, discharge flow number. Agitation in Air-Water systems, agitation in solid-water systems. Mixing in solid-air-water systems.

Flotation practice: flotation of sulphides, flotation of non-polar non sulphide minerals, flotation of oxidized and mixed non-ferrous ores, flotation of polar non-sulphide minerals, flotation of precious metals, flotation of silicates, flotation of soluble salts, flotation of precipitates and ions. Process control of flotation. Recent developments in flotation process. Industrial minerals mill practice

 

Coal flotation: Structure and composition of coal that affects coal flotation, chemical and petrographic  composition of coal that affects coal flotation, impurities associated with coal, natural flotability of coal, effect of oxidation on coal flotability, reagents used in coal flotation;- non polar oils, heteropolar reagents, inorganic electrolytes, depressants. pH and Zeta potential.

  • Energy management
  • Engineering Economics
  • Micro-economics
  • Macro-economics
  • Project Evaluation
  • Methods of Evaluating Financial Investments: Static method of project evaluation
  • Time value of money
  • Discounted Cash Flow Analysis
  • Dynamic methods of Project Evaluation
  • Inflation
  • Revenue estimation
  • Statistical Techniques
  • Programming / Operations Research Techniques
  • Process Engineering Laboratories
  • Research Methodology
  • Introduction to research
  • The scientific method
  • Methodology of Metallurgical Investigations
  • Objectives and Evaluation Criteria
  • Sampling
  • Sampling Procedures
  • Sample Collection
  • Material Characterisation
  • Types of Metallurgical Investigations
  •  Mineral Processing
  • Statistical Aspect of Metallurgical Investigations
  • Data Analysis and presentation
  • Research report

Introduction

  • Belt Conveyors
  • Mechanical Conveyors
  • Ore storage
  • Blending and Homogenization

Pumping

  • Introduction
  • Single phase flow
  • Multiphase flow
  • Environmental Engineering:
  • Introduction
  • Water Pollution
  • Air Pollution Control
  • Noise Pollution and Noise Measurement:
  • Soil Pollution
  • Environmental Economics
  • Classical and Neoclassical Economics
  • Economic Activity and the Environment
  • Pricing and Mechanism
  • Estimation of Value of the Environment
  • Evaluation criteria of instruments
  • Environment Impact Assessment Process in Zambia and Internationally
Management Principles and practices, Design management, technical marketing management, management of quality, maintenance management, project management and project evaluation, Basics in accounting, budgeting and financial analysis, costing and accounting techniques, evaluation of company financial reports, equipment selection problems, sensitivity and risk analysis techniques, commodity marketing, taxation, Human behavior, human organization behavior and ergonomics.

FIFTH YEAR Metallurgical Stream Only

  • Environmental Engineering:
  • Introduction
  • Water Pollution
  • Air Pollution Control
  • Noise Pollution and Noise Measurement
  • Soil Pollution
  • Environmental Economics
  • Classical and Neoclassical Economics
  • Economic Activity and the Environment
  • Pricing and Mechanism
  • Estimation of Value of the Environment
  • Evaluation criteria of instruments
  • Environment Impact Assessment Process in Zambia and Internationally
  • Detailed course contents
  • Surface Requirements for Joining
  • Solid State Joining Processes
  • Brazing and Soldering
  • Adhesive bonding
  • Fusion welding fundamentals
  • Fusion welding processes
  • Responses of materials to welding
  • Welding specific material classes
  • Design and Performance of welded structures
  • Modern welding techniques
  • Quality Assurance of Welding Operations
  • Process Selection
  • Case studies
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Ductile Fracture
  • Introduction to Complex Stress-Strain Analysis
  • Linear Elastic Facture Mechanics
  • Plastic Fracture Mechanics
  • Computational Fracture Mechanics

Management Principles and practices, Design management, technical marketing management, management of quality, maintenance management, project management and project evaluation, Basics in accounting, budgeting and financial analysis, costing and accounting techniques, evaluation of company financial reports, equipment selection problems, sensitivity and risk analysis techniques, commodity marketing, taxation, Human behavior, human organization behavior and ergonomics.

Process Control

Instrumentation for Measurement and Control

Each student undertakes a project preferably during the long vacation at the end of the fourth year and preparation and writing up of the thesis is expected to be completed in the fifth and final year of study. The project is designed to evaluate the student’s analytical ability to solve engineering problems based on the knowledge obtained from training programs in the various courses. For this reason most of the projects will focus on investigating plant based engineering problems in the various metallurgical units in the mining industry. However, when need arises, a project may be a design, feasibility, computing or laboratory based study. Depending on the nature of the project, the student can work as an individual or in groups of not more than three. Each project is assigned an academic and industrial supervisor in a particular project field of specialization. The length of the project and the date of submission is advised by the department.

FIFTH YEAR MINERAL STREAM ONLY

  • General Principles of Leaching on Plant Practice
  • Bioleaching
  • Hydrometallurgical Processing and Environmental
  • Recycling Acid Mine Drainage & Abandoned Mine Sites.
  • Flowsheet Design and Development
  • Process Mineralogy
  • Process Modelling & Control
  • Engineering Issues
  • Process Economics

  • Physical chemistry of flotation
  • Floatability test of minerals
  • Mineralisation of air bubbles in flotation
  • Aeration and froth formation
  • Flotation kinetics and speed of flotation. Factors affecting flotation
  • Collector Adsorption Mechanisms
  • Flotation mechanisms sulphide minerals
  • Thiol Collector chemistry
  • Properties of Flotation Froths
  • Flotation Modifiers
  • Flotation of Sulphide, Mixed Sulphide and Non Sulphide minerals
  • Surface Processes

  • Process Control
  • Introduction. Feedback Control
  •  Qualitative Approaches to Simple Feedback Control System Design
  • The Transfer Function
  •  Transfer Functions of Capacity Systems
  • Distance –Velocity Lag. Transfer Functions of Fixed Parameter Controllers: Ideal controllers
  •  Response of Control Loop Components to Forcing Functions
  •  Transfer Functions of Feedback Control Systems
  • System stability and the Characteristic Equation
  • Common Procedures for Setting Feedback Controller Parameters
  • Cascade Control. Feed-Forward and Ratio Control
  • MIMO Systems-Interaction and Decoupling
  • Non-Linear Systems
  •  Discrete Time Control Systems
  • Adaptive Control
  • Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS
  • The Programmable Controller
  • Instrumentation for Measurement and Control
  • The Measurement of Flow
  • The Measurement of Pressure
  •  The Measurement of Temperature
  • The Measurement of Level
  •  Measurement of Density
  • The Measurement of Viscosity
  •  The Measurement of Composition
  •  Process Sampling Systems
  •  Signal Conditioning
  •  Signal Transmission
  • Design Criteria
  • Sampling a mineral deposit for metallurgical testing
  • Mineral Processing Flowheet Development
  • Metallurgical testing
  • Communition
  • Mineral Separation tests
  • Hydrometallurgical process tests
  • Pilot Plant Testwork
  • Mass Balance Equilibration
  • Concentrator Plant Design
  • Capital and Operating Costs
  • Computer Simulation

Each student undertakes a project preferably during the long vacation at the end of the fourth year and preparation and writing up of the thesis is expected to be completed in the fifth and final year of study. The project is designed to evaluate the student’s analytical ability to solve engineering problems based on the knowledge obtained from training programs in the various courses. For this reason most of the projects will focus on investigating plant based engineering problems in the various metallurgical units in the mining industry. However, when need arises, a project may be a design, feasibility, computing or laboratory based study. Depending on the nature of the project, the student can work as an individual or in groups of not more than three. Each project is assigned an academic and industrial supervisor in a particular project field of specialization. The length of the project and the date of submission is advised by the department.