Bachelor of Engineering in  Geomatics Engineering

Bachelor of Science in  Geomatics Engineering

This is a five year programme available on full time. The programme has eight non-elective courses at fifth year of study. These include: Engineering Management, Environmental Management, Law of Contracts, Survey Law, Geomatics, Spatial Modelling, Digital Image Processing and Entrepreneurship. A compulsory final year project concludes the programme.

FIRST YEAR COURSES

See courses offered for first year Chemical Engineering

SECOND YEAR COURSES

Functions of one real variable, Differentiation, Functions of two real variables, Vectors in three dimensions, Ordinary Differential Equations, Determinants and Matrices, Integration, Trigonometric Equations and their Applications, Complex Numbers, Numbers Systems and Codes and Boolean Algebra.
Historical and theoretical bases of land use planning, hierarchy of land use plans, land use control and management. Sub-division and township layouts; site analysis. Social considerations; financial and economic considerations, institutional framework. Property development; current development issues; Provincial and municipal planning approval requirements; Public participation; Site assessments.
Engineering communication, conventional representation, first and third angle projections, BS 308, lettering, line work, orthographic surface, auxiliary view, development of curved surfaces. Pictorial representation of solids components, isometric and oblique projection. Construction of scales, enlargement and reduction of linear dimensions. The construction of circles, touch lines and other circles. Construction of conic sections, locus of a point, cycloid, epi and hypo cycloid, the involute. Construction of gear tooth profiles, helixed, threads and worms. Cams, displacement diagrams, straight line mechanism. Drawing of machine parts.
An introduction to drawing in Auto-Cad using the computer
Overview and physical basis of remote sensing. Space- and air-borne sensor systems, active and passive sensors. Fundamental geometry of photogrammetry. Image statistics. Rectification of digital imagery. Image enhancement, spectral and spatial filtering. Multi-spectral transformations. Thematic information extraction, classification and accuracy assessment, change detection.
Differential levelling including precise methods and instruments; heights by other methods; angular and gyro theodolite measurements; distance measurements by taping, optical methods and EDM; basic principles; basic features of instruments; testing, adjustment and calibration of instruments; measurement procedures; accuracies. Computations: traverse and area, the first and second geodetic problem on the plane, trig sections, station and target eccentricities, coordinate transformations. Route Surveying: route location, horizontal and vertical curves, sight distance, slope staking, earth work computations, mass diagram. Routine procedures: setting out straight lines and right angles, measurement with obstructions. Mapping by tacheometry or total station. Setting out surveys: alignment and grade for roads, sewers and pipelines, bridges, buildings, dams, tunnels. Mining surveys. Introduction to satellite positioning.
Introduction to Geospatial Information Systems and Geographic Information Science, Geo-relational vector data model, object-based vector data model, raster data model, map projections, geodetic datums, coordinate systems, geo-referencing, database design and management, query language, geometric transformations, vector data analysis, raster data analysis, spatial interpolation, terrain modeling and analysis, triangulated irregular network data model, path and network analysis, temporal GIS.
Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, field concept, electric force, Gauss’s Theorem, potential, potential gradient, equipotentials. Magnetism: Field concept, flux density, magneto – motive force, magnetizing force, properties of magnetic materials. Circuit Theory: Lumped parameters; resistance, inductance, capacitance and their differential equations.
Fundamentals of electronics and instrumentation: Common types of analogue instruments, limitations and applications. Power Utilisation: Further work on balanced and simple unbalanced three phase systems. Power measurement. Electrical Machines: Basic theory and operation of D.C., induction and synchronous machines.

THIRD YEAR COURSES

Functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals and application of, vector functions, Green's and Stokes' Theorems; Probability spaces: combinatorial probability; conditional probability and independence. Random variables: discrete distributions; continuous distributions; expectation, variance, and covariance; linear combinations. Statistics: descriptive and graphical statistics; sampling distributions. Inference: point estimation; confidence intervals; hypothesis tests; paired data designs; two sample inferences. Elementary probability, discrete and continuous distributions, characteristics of distributions. Statistics, sampling, estimation and hypothesis testing, curve fitting, quality control. Mathematical analysis of linear systems. Fourier and Laplace transforms, applications and numerical methods. Functions of a complex variable and applications.
Highway Engineering- Explores the planning, design, construction, and characteristics of highways and city streets, including layout, traffic requirements, safety and control, drainage, sub-grade structure, base courses, and surface pavements. Problems to be solved include geometric design, traffic volume, channelization, and hydrology: Organizations dealing with road design standards
Construction – Contouring, vertical sections, detail /topographical survey, curve ranging, spiral curves, vertical alignment & super-elevations; areas & volumes, embankments, cuttings & tunnels, setting out construction works, earthworks & surfacing.
Photogrammetric principles, systems and products. Fundamental photo and model space coordinate systems. Photogrammetric measurement and refinement. Geometry of vertical, tilted and stereoscopic aerial photographs. Direct and inverse coordinate transformations. Photo mosaicking techniques. Co-linearity and co-planarity conditions. Interior, exterior, relative and absolute orientations. Principles of analytical and digital rectification, DEM generation and ortho-rectification. Concepts of aero-triangulation. Flight project planning.
Introduction to geodesy. Ellipsoid and Geoid. Geoid undulations and deflection of the vertical. The best fitting Spheroid. The geometry of the ellipsoid and geoid. Ellipsoid and astronomical latitude and longitude. The geodetic lines. Adoption of formula from sphere to spheroid, Cartesian co-ordinates. Conversion of Cartesian co-ordinates into latitude and longitude and the inverse problem. Geodetic datums. The geodetic datum accepted for Zambia. Orbital theory, signal structure, data processing and positioning techniques. GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO –GNSS. The celestial sphere, coordinate systems: equatorial and horizon systems. Concepts of odellin and mean time. The star almanac, the nautical almanac. Determination of azimuth. Observation techniques. Roelof’s solar prism, astrolabe attachment. Computation of azimuths. Hour angle and altitude methods. Astronomical determination of latitude and longitude. Bearing correction in the Transverse Macerator projection. Accuracy.
Review of procedural programming including problem analysis; algorithm design, and program structure. Use of procedures, loops, and arrays. Debugging and verification of programs. Introduction to object-based programming using high level compiled and interpreted languages. Binary and ASCII File I/O, use of function libraries and class libraries. Construction of simple classes. Inheritance and polymorphism. Programming for Geomatics Engineering applications. Visualization and data representation.
Overview of Geospatial Information System: concepts and applications. GIS architecture. Conceptual data odelling, Relational database design. Advanced database topics: database normalization, data dictionary, query languages, object oriented databases. Geo-visualization: definition and purpose, human-computer interaction, visualization techniques Data quality standards, error and uncertainty. System design and implementation. Spatial Data Infrastructures.
Identification of problems involved in case study. Selection of project area. Definition of input and output data. The projects will integrate all the courses taken in 1st 2nd and 3rd years. The projects may include (but not limited to) acquisition, manipulation and management of spatial data, data analysis and representation, analysis of off-the-shelf software packages, and programming.
This 2-week camp in the field is intended for students studying for the Geomatics degree. The camp is project based with the main emphasis on basic survey operations, including traverse, tacheometry and levelling, with the preparation of a site plan in Cadastral surveys, Engineering or Topographical surveys, Mine surveys.

FOURTH YEAR COURSES

Advanced least squares modelling using the parametric adjustment case, survey statistics, network design, elimination of nuisance parameters, combined and general case, quasi-parametric case, parametric adjustment with condition equations for the unknowns, adjustment using observation equations, generalised inverses, free net adjustment and S-transformation. Programming of least squares applications.
Principles of space geodesy. The celestial sphere, its coordinate systems, and variations in coordinate systems. Star observations. Time keeping. Satellite based positioning systems, especially the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) including observations, development of mathematical models, static and dynamic positioning, error analysis, software structure, and processing considerations.
Attraction and Potential. Potential of a solid body. Level surfaces and gravity. The geoid, Normal gravity. Anomalous gravity field. Gravity anomaly. Geoidal undulations and deflections of the vertical. Elementary spherical harmonics, Stokes formula. Gravity and geographical surveys: gravimetric instruments for absolute and relative determination. Gravimetric stations and use of observatories
Functions of management; Planning; Organisation; Leading & Controlling; Managerial systems; Engineering economics; financial accounting & financial management. Basics in accounting, budgeting and financial analysis, costing and accounting techniques, evaluation of company financial reports, equipment selection problems, sensitivity and risk analysis techniques, commodity marketing, taxation, Human behaviour, human organization behaviour and ergonomics.
Land tenure, cadastral systems, boundary concepts, cadastral survey computations; land registration systems, entity relationship models of land tenure systems. History of cadastral systems, land administration, land information systems, fiscal and juridical cadastres
Geology - Introduction; mineralogy; igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, stratigraphy, surface processes; plate tectonics; Strata and structures: unconformities, folds, faults; Geology of the Copperbelt ore deposits; Geochemical and geophysical exploration; data compilation and interpretation; Role of geology in mining industry; geological ground conditions in mines; sampling techniques and ore reserve calculations.
Mining: Introduction: mining operation; terms and layouts. Drilling: operations, machines and rigs, drilling patterns. Explosives: types and properties; safety, storage and handling. Blasting: accessories, rock breaking and excavation theory, electric and non-electric blasting and principles of blasting systems.
Tacheometric Survey: Application and limitation, principles and methods, reduction of stadia notes, errors. Triangulation Survey: Principles, classification, steps in triangulation survey, base line measurements and corrections, base networks, Problems. Curve Ranging: Linear and angular methods of setting out of simple curves, requirements and functions of a transition curve. Open Cast Survey: Principles, methods and survey network, Calculation of areas and volumes. Correlation Survey: Principles, Classification, Methods, Shaft Plumbing, Assumed Bearing, Weisback Triangle, Weisback quadrilateral, Problems on correlation survey etc. and degree of accuracy. Stope Surveying: Definition, purpose, methods: Tape triangulation, Ray, steeply dipping ore bodies, moderately dipping ore bodies, degree of accuracy. Subsidence Survey: Principles, method and degree of accuracy, underground traversing, setting out gradients in tunnels and adits, Theory of Errors: Introduction to errors and its theory, propagation of errors, their prevention and elimination, method of least squares from field observations and its application, probable errors of single observation and most probable value, weight and weighted observations and their probable errors.

FIFTH YEAR COURSES

Industrial and operations management; Marketing; Total Quality Management (TQM); Total Productivity Management (TPM); Just In Time (JIT); Engineering Maintenance Management System.
General introduction to the legal and ethical aspects of engineering practice. Social responsibilities of engineers, the Engineering Institution of Zambia Act and code of ethics, Occupational health and safety, sustainable development, environmental stewardship, employment equity, legal duties and liabilities of the professional engineer, contracts, the tort of negligence, labour law, intellectual and industrial property, conflict resolution.
The concepts, methods, and algorithms of digital terrain modelling will be presented as well as surface modelling principles, triangulation techniques, interpolation methods, mathematical models and terrain analysis. Quality control and accuracy assessments will be performed along with different methods for data acquisition and different surface visualization methods.
Review of legislation (Land Survey act and Survey Regulations, Lands Act, Lands and Deeds Registry Act, Town and Country Planning Act, Engineering Institute of Zambia Act, Cadastral Survey Regulations, Mines and Minerals Act), survey standards and regulation, standards of practice and case law affecting property interests, property boundaries and boundary surveys. Evidence and Boundary Survey Principles, Riparian rights, Title to land. Reforms in the Surveying Profession.
Management of impacts due to water pollution, wastewater discharges, noise, air pollution, solid waste. Society and ecology, assessment indices, environmental legislation, regulations, environmental planning and assessment.
Advanced instrumentation, two- and three-dimensional co-ordinate computations and transformations, and route design and surveying. Theory and accuracy evaluation of optical, optical-mechanical, and electronic instrumentation and techniques. Introduction and detailed principles of using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
Image acquisition and display, properties of the human visual system, colour representations, sampling and quantization, point operations, linear image filtering and correlation, transforms and sub band decompositions, nonlinear filtering, contrast and colour enhancement, dithering, image restoration, image registration, and simple feature extraction and recognition techniques.
Concepts of entrepreneurship: qualities required of an entrepreneur; classification of entrepreneurship; qualities conducive for promotion of entrepreneurship; reasons for entrepreneurship failure; procedures for starting small scale industry.
Business organization and company formation: administration and legal aspects. Financial statement appreciation: cash flows, profit and loss account, balance sheet. Elements of business plan proposal. Methods of financing small-scale business. Technical and financial evaluation of business. Business environment.